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Kilmarnock Academy Art & Design

National 5 Written Paper Notes

Edgar Degas

The invention of photography had a major influence on Degas work. People became used to seeing figures cropped off in unusual ways. In "the Ballet Class" we see a cut-off composition of the dancers in the foreground and background where we get a sense of the scene continuing. Degas had visited three major exhibitions in Paris of Japanese prints, this was the first time that Western culture had seen Eastern artwork. This influenced Degas’ use of an asymmetrical composition in this image, the positioning of the focal point off-centre and leaving large areas of space.

Anthony Gormley


"The figures look empty, cold and motionless. They lack movement, thought, feeling and even life. This gives the effect of death, of lives that once were, and makes the viewer stop and think about their own existence and its meaning."


Gormley studied meditation. Meditation is a way of taking control of the mind so that it becomes peaceful and focused, and the meditator becomes more aware. ‘Domain Field’ gives the viewer a sense of peace, the fragile structures, weightlessness, and position makes you stop and think.

Philippe Starck


"The main body of the ‘Juicy Salif’ is shaped like a lemon pip. It is tapered and reduces in thickness and has streamlined vertical grooves. This allows the freshly squeezed juice to flow down the grooves towards the point of the pip where it dribbles into the receptacle below."


Starck was heavily influenced by the Bauhaus – a German school of architecture and design, founded by Walter Gropius. Its philosophy was to use functional design to create a better society; this influence is evident in the lemon squeezer, it performs the same function as traditional lemon squeezers, however with more style.

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